Kaff-DM Syrup

Kaff-DM Syrup is the medicine manufactured with the combination of Dextromethorphan HBr IP, Phenylephrine HCL IP, and Chlorpheniramine Maleate IP.

Dextromethorphan HBr IP

Dextromethorphan HBr is one of the active ingredients in various over-the-counter cold and cough medicines including NyQuil, Coricidin, Dimetapp, Mucinex DM, Robitussin, Vicks, Delsym, and others, including generic labels.

Chemistry of Dextromethorphan HBr IP

Chemical Formula: C18H25NO•HBr

Molecular Mass: 370.32

Physical Properties: White or almost white powder

Solubility: Freely soluble in water

Pharmacokinetics of Dextromethorphan HBr IP

Dextromethorphan is swiftly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and transformed into the active metabolite dextrorphan in the liver by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2D6. The average dosage necessary for effectual antitussive treatment i.e. between 10 mg and 45 mg; however, it is depending on the individual.

The time period of action after oral administration is roughly three to eight hours for dextromethorphan-hydrobromide, and ten to twelve hours for dextromethorphan-polistirex. Moreover, about 1 in 10 of the caucasian people has tiny or no CYP2D6 enzyme activity leading to long lived high drug levels.

Pharmacodynamics of Dextromethorphan HBr IP

Dextromethorphan acts as a prodrug to its nearly 10-fold more potent metabolite dextrorphan, and this is the right mediator of its dissociative effects. It is not completely clear that what role, if any, (+)-3-methoxymorphinan, dextromethorphan's other major metabolite, plays in its effects.

Medical uses of Dextromethorphan HBr IP

Dextromethorphan HBr IP has following medical use:

  • To prevent cough
  • To treat neuropathic pain
  • To treat fibromyalgia
  • Side effects of Dextromethorphan HBr IP

    It could have following minor as well as serious side effects:

  • Hypotension
  • Hypertension
  • Cardiac arrhythmias
  • Sedation
  • Dizziness
  • Disturbed coordination
  • Tremor
  • Irritability
  • Insomnia
  • Weakness
  • Dysphoria
  • Pruritus
  • Overdose of Dextromethorphan HBr IP

    Overdose of Dextromethorphan HBr may reflect following symptoms:

  • Drowsiness
  • Ataxia
  • Nystagmus
  • Opisthotonos
  • Convulsive seizures
  • Cautions of Dextromethorphan HBr IP

    Take this medicine under the surveillance of your doctor and immediately report your doctor if you feel any sort of problem.

    Phenylephrine HCL IP

    Phenylephrine is the derivative of Phenylephrine (HCl) and it is of Synthetic origin that belongs to Aminoethanol.

    Chemistry of Phenylephrine HCL IP

    Chemical Formula: C9H13NO2, HCl

    Molecular Mass: 203.70

    Physical Properties: White, odourless, and crystalline powder

    Solubility: Fully soluble in water

    Pharmacokinetics of Phenylephrine HCL IP

    The oral absorption of Phenylephrine (HCl) is about 73% ±2. The volume of distribution is about 340 litres. Presystemic metabolism is measured about 60% and metabolism is reported Hepatic. And, the renal excretion accounts for < 20 % and plasma half life is 2 to 3 hours.

    Phenylephrine is largely excreted through the kidneys and about 80% to 90% of the orally given dosage is eliminated within 48 hours.

    Pharmacodynamics Phenylephrine HCL IP

    Oral phenylephrine is comprehensively metabolised by monoamine oxidise, an enzyme which remains in the gastrointestinal tract and the liver. Therefore, in comparison to orally-taken pseudoephedrine, it has a reduced and variable bioavailability of merely up to 38 percent, and hence it is less effective as a nasal decongestant than pseudoephedrine.

    Medical uses of Phenylephrine HCL IP

    Phenylephrine Hydrochloride is an active pharmaceutical element and it is being used largely for the following drugs formulations:

    Oral Preparations:

  • Capsules
  • Tablets and film tablets
  • Syrups and other liquidsv
  • Granules and powder for liquid intake
  • Topical preparations:

  • Eye drops
  • Nose drops and sprays
  • Some other uses are:

  • Oral strips
  • Chewable tablets
  • Creams
  • Ointments
  • Gels
  • Ear drops
  • Ophthalmic inlays
  • Nebulizers
  • Side Effects of Phenylephrine HCL IP

    Phenylephrine (HCl) produces potentially serious side effects which include:

  • Bradycardia
  • Vomiting
  • Severe hypertension
  • Overdose of Phenylephrine HCL IP

    The signs and symptoms that caused because of the overdose of Phenylephrine (HCl) are:

  • Bradycardia
  • Rise in B.P.
  • Caution of Phenylephrine HCL IP

    Phenylephrine should be used with caution with the patients who have hyperthyroidism, bradycardia, and partial heart block. Besides, it should be used in large vein to shun necrosis and sloughing of surrounding tissues.

    Chlorpheniramine Maleate

    Chlorpheniramine (Maleate) also known as Chlorphenamine Maleate is a first-generation alkylamine antihistamine and generally used in the prevention of the symptoms of allergic conditions including rhinitis and urticaria.

    Chemistry of Chlorpheniramine Maleate

    Chemical Formula: C16H19ClN2

    Molecular Mass: 274.788 g/mol

    Pharmacokinetics of Chlorpheniramine Maleate

    Chlorpheniramine maleate is absorbed comparatively slowly from the gastrointestinal tract, with peak plasma concentrations occurring approximately 2.5 to 6 hours after oral administration. It appears to undergo considerable first-pass metabolism. Besides, bioavailability is low and values of 25% to 50% having been noted. There is large inter-individual variation in the pharmacokinetics of chlorpheniramine; half-life values ranging between 2 and 43 hours noted.

    Pharmacodynamics Chlorpheniramine Maleate

    Chlorpheniramine Maleate medication works by blocking a certain natural substance (histamine), that the human body makes during an allergic reaction. By blocking another natural substance made by the human body (acetylcholine), Chlorpheniramine Maleate helps to dry up some body fluids and relieve symptoms such as watery eyes and runny nose.