Sidan is the drug prepared with the combination of Phenylephrine HCL IP, Chlorpheniramine Maleate IP, Paracetamol IP, & Caffeine IP.


Phenylephrine is the derivative of Phenylephrine (HCl) and it is of Synthetic origin that belongs to Aminoethanol.

Chemistry of Phenylephrine HCL IP

Chemical Formula: C9H13NO2, HCl

Molecular Mass: 203.70

Physical Properties: White, odourless, and crystalline powder

Solubility: Fully soluble in water

Pharmacokinetics of Phenylephrine HCL IP

The oral absorption of Phenylephrine (HCl) is about 73% ±2. The volume of distribution is about 340 litres. Presystemic metabolism is measured about 60% and metabolism is reported Hepatic. And, the renal excretion accounts for < 20 % and plasma half life is 2 to 3 hours.

Phenylephrine is largely excreted through the kidneys and about 80% to 90% of the orally given dosage is eliminated within 48 hours.

Pharmacodynamics Phenylephrine HCL IP

Oral phenylephrine is comprehensively metabolised by monoamine oxidise, an enzyme which remains in the gastrointestinal tract and the liver. Therefore, in comparison to orally-taken pseudoephedrine, it has a reduced and variable bioavailability of merely up to 38 percent, and hence it is less effective as a nasal decongestant than pseudoephedrine.

Medical uses of Phenylephrine HCL IP

Phenylephrine Hydrochloride is an active pharmaceutical element and it is being used largely for the following drugs formulations:

Oral Preparations:

  • Capsules
  • Tablets and film tablets
  • Syrups and other liquids
  • Granules and powder for liquid intake
  • Topical preparations:

  • Eye drops
  • Nose drops and sprays
  • Some other uses are:

    Dicyclomine may cause range of anticholinergic side effects such as:

  • Oral strips
  • Chewable tablets
  • Creams
  • Ointments
  • Gels
  • Ear drops
  • Ophthalmic inlays
  • Nebulizers
  • Side Effects of Phenylephrine HCL IP

    Phenylephrine (HCl) produces potentially serious side effects which include:

  • Bradycardia
  • Vomiting
  • Severe hypertension
  • Overdose of Phenylephrine HCL IP

    The signs and symptoms that caused because of the overdose of Phenylephrine (HCl) are:

  • Bradycardia
  • Rise in B.P.
  • Caution of Phenylephrine HCL IP

    Phenylephrine should be used with caution with the patients who have hyperthyroidism, bradycardia, and partial heart block. Besides, it should be used in large vein to shun necrosis and sloughing of surrounding tissues.


    Chlorpheniramine (Maleate) also known as Chlorphenamine Maleate is a first-generation alkylamine antihistamine and generally used in the prevention of the symptoms of allergic conditions including rhinitis and urticaria.

    Chemistry of Chlorpheniramine Maleate

    Chemical Formula: C16H19ClN2

    Molecular Mass: 274.788 g/mol

    Pharmacokinetics of Chlorpheniramine Maleate

    Chlorpheniramine maleate is absorbed comparatively slowly from the gastrointestinal tract, with peak plasma concentrations occurring approximately 2.5 to 6 hours after oral administration. It appears to undergo considerable first-pass metabolism. Besides, bioavailability is low and values of 25% to 50% having been noted. There is large inter-individual variation in the pharmacokinetics of chlorpheniramine; half-life values ranging between 2 and 43 hours noted.

    Pharmacodynamics Chlorpheniramine Maleate

    Chlorpheniramine Maleate medication works by blocking a certain natural substance (histamine), that the human body makes during an allergic reaction. By blocking another natural substance made by the human body (acetylcholine), Chlorpheniramine Maleate helps to dry up some body fluids and relieve symptoms such as watery eyes and runny nose.

    Medical uses of Chlorpheniramine Maleate

    Chlorpheniramine is an antihistamine used to relieve symptoms:

  • Allergy
  • Hay fever
  • Cold
  • Sinus pressure
  • Side Effects of Chlorpheniramine Maleate

    Side effects of Chlorpheniramine Maleate may be minor or some it may be serious;

  • Sinus tachycardia
  • Seizures
  • Hypertension
  • Drowsiness
  • Headaches
  • Bone marrow suppression
  • Overdose of Chlorpheniramine Maleate

    The signs and symptoms that caused because of the overdose of Chlorpheniramine Maleate are:

  • Hypotension
  • Convulsions
  • Coma
  • Urinary retention
  • Unconsciousness
  • Fever
  • Dryness of mucous
  • Flushing membrane
  • Pupillary dilatation
  • Caution of Chlorpheniramine Maleate

    Chlorpheniramine Maleate should be used with caution with the patients who have renal or hepatic impairment and also the patients with epilepsy.


    Paracetamol is a medicine more commonly used over-the-counter analgesic (i.e. for pain reliever) and antipyretic (i.e. for fever reducer).

    Chemistry of Paracetamol

    Chemical Formula: C8H9NO2

    Molecular Mass: 151.17 g/mol

    Pharmacokinetics of Paracetamol

    Absorption: Paracetamol is easily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract with peak plasma concentrations occurring nearby 10 to 60 minutes after the oral administration.

    Distribution: Paracetamol is distributed into most of the body tissues. Plasma protein binding is negligible at usual therapeutic doses but increases with increasing doses.

    Elimination: Its elimination half-life varies between 1 and 3 hours.